Com161 Assignment Definition
The TExES Special Education EC – 12 Exam is a certification examination that is designed to determine whether or not an individual possesses the knowledge necessary to teach students with disabilities and special needs at any grade level within the Texas public school system. This exam assesses the individual’s understanding of what it means to work with students that have disabilities, methods to evaluate the individual needs of a student that has a disability, and methods to teach a variety of subjects to students with special needs. This exam also assesses the individual’s knowledge of basic subject content related to English language arts, reading, and mathematics. This exam is required in order to become a certified special education teacher within the state of the Texas. The exam consists of 150 multiple-choice questions that are related to the following areas:
- Understanding Individuals with Disabilities and Evaluating Their Needs (13%)
- Promoting Student Learning and Development (33%)
- Promoting Student Achievement in English Language Arts, and Reading and in Mathematics (33%)
- Foundations and Professional Roles, and Responsibilities (20%)
The exam-taker will be supplied with a Definitions and Formula Reference Sheet and a scientific calculator for the exam. The exam-taker will have five hours to complete the exam and the exam will be scored on a scale of 100 – 300 with 240 set as the minimum score considered as passing for the exam. The Special Education EC – 12 Exam is offered in a computerized format and the registration fee for the exam is $131. However, there are usually other exams and fees in addition to this exam that are required in order to become a certified entry-level special education teacher within the state of Texas.
161 TExES Special Education EC – 12 Exam Practice Questions
Sample Study Notes
1. Discuss the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Individualized Educational Program (IEP).
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a federal law that declares that children with physical, psychological and learning disabilities are entitled to a “free and appropriate public education.” Every state and territory is required to provide educational opportunities for children between the ages of 3 and 21 no matter how severe their learning problems or physical challenges.
The Individualized Educational Program (IEP) is a comprehensive written document mandated by IDEA. Schools are required to conduct an evaluation that includes various assessment tests to determine the child’s strengths and weaknesses; the results of interviews with the child, parents, teachers and other significant adults; and notes from conferences with professionals familiar with the child. IEP provides a review of his medical history and current educational performance and comments from direct observation in various settings. It describes annual goals and sets short-term objectives. The IEP spells out the type and length of special services required, and establishes methods for evaluating progress. From the age of 16, it must also include a plan to move the child out of school into the real world.
2. Define these learning disabilities: dyslexia; dyscalculia; dysgraphia; auditory and visual processing disorders; and nonverbal learning disorders.
DYSLEXIA is a chronic neurological disorder in which a person has trouble learning to read and spell. He sees letters and words in reverse order (backwards); his handwriting is frequently illegible.
DYSCALCULIA is a brain disorder that causes impairment in the ability to solve arithmetic problems and understand math concepts.
DYSGRAPHIA is a disorder that makes it difficult to form letters and numbers. A person suffering from this problem finds it almost impossible to write within a defined space.
AUDITORY AND VISUAL PROCESSING DISORDERS cover a range of sensory problems in which a person, even though his hearing and vision are normal, has difficulty understanding language.
NONVERBAL LEARNING DISABILITIES are neurological disorders in the right side of the brain that cause problems with processing spatial, intuitive, organization, evaluation and holistic functions.
3. Describe behavior that may indicate a student has a learning disability.
Since teachers have regular contact with students and can usually be objective, they are in a unique position to observe students’ behavior. Awkward interactions with peers, difficulty with normal classroom requirements, and frustrated attempts to master tasks all suggest potential problems.
However, these signs are not diagnostic tools and should be considered in light of the student’s age. They should be considered hints rather than markers. Other warning signs include:
Trouble understanding and remembering new data
Difficulty getting and staying organized, following clearly-defined directions, and remembering and honoring deadlines
Problems using basic reading, writing, spelling and math skills
Making inappropriate comments; difficulty interacting with peers and teachers
Problems expressing thoughts; inability to use proper grammar in speaking and writing
It is normal for children occasionally to exhibit some warning signs of a learning disability and not have a problem. However, if several signs are observed over a period of time, it is wise to take a closer look and have the student tested.
4. Discuss how the brain functions.
In order to truly understand learning disabilities and their many manifestations, it is helpful to understand how the brain functions. This can be confusing, since the different professions that deal with students who have learning disabled students may use the same words but apply different meanings as the terms relate to their area of expertise.
There are four basic steps the brain must take for learning to happen. Each is important; if one is missing or doesn’t work properly, learning may be delayed, difficult or disabled. The first step is to get the data from the eyes and ears into the brain (input). The brain then must make sense of the data received (integration). Once received, the data must be stored and available for retrieval (memory). When needed, the brain must make sense of the data and send the message to the nerves and muscles (output). The process:
INPUT > INTEGRATION > MEMORY > OUTPUT
5. Discuss input and integration disabilities.
The brain receives information as impulses from the eyes (visual input) and the ears (auditory input). This process is called perception. If there are problems with the process, it has nothing to do with vision or hearing issues; in other words, perception takes place in the brain, not the eyes and ears. Children may have one or both disabilities. Some children have problems when required to use both processes simultaneously.
The information received by the brain must be understood in order to be useful. This process is known as integration, and is accomplished through sequencing and abstraction. Sequencing is the process of putting data symbols in the correct order. From that unique order, the brain determines the meaning of the information. Once the brain determines the correct order of the symbols, it must figure out the meaning of the symbol, because a word can have both a general meaning and a specific meaning. “A” cat is different from “my” cat. The ability to understand the differences in the subtle meanings of the same word is called abstract thinking (abstraction).
6. Discuss short- and long-term memory and language output.
Short-term memory is an individual’s ability to retain data for as long as he is focused on the particular information. A person with a short-term memory disability has a hard time retrieving information that has been learned recently.
Long-term memory is where information is stored until it is needed and retrieved. If someone has a long-term memory disability, he would be diagnosed with some type of retardation, because he would be unable to function in daily life without assistance.
In spontaneous language expression, the speaker chooses the topic, organizes his thoughts, and puts together words before he speaks. In demand language expression, the listener is expected to get his thoughts together, find the correct words, and answer appropriately in a split second. A child with a language disability has no problem with spontaneous language. When he voluntarily answers, he may sound normal. But when called on to answer, he may respond with “Huh?” or “What?” or not answer at all. The child chattering just a moment earlier may be completely unable to respond. The inconsistency can be startling.
7. Discuss mental retardation.
The American Heritage College Dictionary defines mental retardation as “subnormal intellectual development or functioning due to congenital causes, brain injury, or disease, and characterized by any of various deficiencies, ranging from impaired learning ability to social and vocational inadequacy.” There are many causes. The most common are:
GENETIC CONDITIONS: abnormal genes or errors in gene combination
PROBLEMS DURING PREGNANCY: improper brain development because cells divide incorrectly; the mother is an alcoholic, contracts rubella or doesn’t get adequate prenatal care
COMPLICATIONS AT BIRTH: baby doesn’t receive enough oxygen
HEALTH PROBLEMS AFTER BIRTH: measles, meningitis, malnutrition; exposure to lead, mercury or other poisons
Mental retardation cannot be cured, but someone who is mentally challenged can learn to do many things; it just takes him longer. It takes patience and repetition, getting his attention and keeping him interested. Teachers should make sure he is involved in all classroom situations and encourage him to interact with the other students in group activities and extracurricular clubs. This will help him grow mentally and emotionally while learning the life skills necessary to function independently in the world.
8. Define Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder – ADHD.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – ADHD – is a behavior problem that affects all areas of life: home, school, and social relationships. While some children with ADHD also have other learning disabilities, ADHD is not classified as a learning disability. Scientists are making a case for ADHD to be included because it directly impacts functions needed to learn.
The main characteristics of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. At times everyone can be absent-minded, fidgety or impulsive, so why are some children diagnosed with ADHD while similar behavior in others is considered normal? The difference is the degree of the behavior: when, where, how much, and how often. For people with ADHD, these behavior patterns are the rule not the exception.
ADHD is a complex behavior disorder, and so symptoms vary. Some individuals are hyperactive; some under-active. Some children may be unable to pay attention for more than a minute or two but have few problems with impulsive behavior. Some children may only have minor problems with paying attention but are unable to curb impulsive actions. Some may have problems in all three areas.
9. Define the term direct teaching and explain how it applies to special-needs students.
The idea behind direct teaching is to shift the emphasis from teaching to learning; the focus is on the student acquiring and integrating knowledge, rather than the teacher’s particular instructional methods. To maximize learning, several questions should be asked. These questions are important when preparing lessons for any students, but are especially critical for special-needs students:
What is the main concept? Are the students ready to learn it? Will students need specific foundational knowledge to understand and integrate it?
What resources are needed to prepare required activities? What steps are necessary to explain the information clearly? Are examples and prompts concrete and easy to understand?
How will progress be monitored? Are students on task? Will they work independently or will they require lots of assistance? How will feedback be provided?
What evaluation methods will be used? Observation? Questions? Demonstrations? Tests?
If follow-up instruction is needed, how will it be provided? Intervention? Remediation? Reviewing? Repeating?
10. List some evaluation strategies for special-needs students.
To obtain an accurate picture of the progress of special-needs students, testing, grading and evaluations should be conducted in a slightly different manner. Tests should be given in a quiet place with as few distractions as possible. Accommodations for asking verbal questions and receiving oral answers should be provided. Tests should be divided into short sections, with visual prompts whenever possible. Avoid giving a timed test; give students however much time they need to complete each section before moving to the next one. Schedule monitored breaks between each section. Teachers should grade spelling, organization and presentation separately from content. When evaluating content, highlight key concepts, creativity, and original thinking so the students and their parents recognize the knowledge gained and progress made. Teachers need to find something specific to identify and praise to encourage the student for his accomplishment, and as an incentive to learn more. Exempt students from district- and state-mandated tests if permitted.
Introduction to JSON and Structured Data
Instructor: Robert Chavez
Dates: May 7th through June 1st, 2018
Credits: 1.5 CEUs or 15 PDHs
JSON is a semi-structured data format for encoding data and is a popular language for data sharing and interchange - as such it is considered a good alternative to XML. This materials in this course will cover all the core JSON syntax and data structures as well as:
- structured data as a concept
- core data structuring approaches
- the differences between XML and JSON
- when to use XML, when to use JSON
JSON itself is the language of JSON Schema and JSON-LD. We will also study core JSON Schema, a language that allows annotation and validation of JSON documents, and have an introduction to JSON-LD. JSON-LD is covered in greater depth in a follow-up course, JSON-LD Fundamentals. Both courses are follow-ups to our Certificate in XML and RDF-Based Systems.
Robert Chavez holds a PhD in Classical Studies from Indiana University. From 1994-1999 he worked in the Library Electronic Text Resource Service at Indiana University Bloomington as an electronic text specialist. From 1999-2007 Robert worked at Tufts University at the Perseus Project and the Digital Collections and Archives as a programmer, digital humanist, and institutional repository program manager. He currently works for the New England Journal of Medicine as Content Applications Architect. Interview with Robert Chavez
This is an online class that is taught asynchronously, meaning that participants do the work on their own time as their schedules allow. The class does not meet together at any particular times, although the instructor may set up optional sychronous chat sessions. Instruction includes readings and assignments in one-week segments. Class participation is in an online forum environment.
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